20th Space Control Squadron, Det 1
Published January 25, 2017
Detachment 1, 20th Space Control Sqaudron is a dedicated space surveillance unit in the northwest corner of the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range, approximately 30 miles southeast of the town of Socorro, N.M. The detachment was the first operational site in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance system.
The primary mission of the detachment is to detect, track and identify all tasked space objects within its area of coverage. The unit usually provides data on deep space objects in the orbits from 3,000 to 22,000 miles, although it has a limited near earth detection capability. Satellite information is provided to the Joint Space Operations Center and 18th Space Control Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. and to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio.
The detachment is one of three worldwide Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance sites.
The GEODSS site performs its mission using three powerful telescopes; low light level, electro-optical cameras; and high speed computers. Detachment 1 uses three, 1.2-meter telescopes with a 1.68-degree field of view. Because the site is an optical sensor, mission operations are limited to relatively clear sky conditions at night. GEODSS telescopes primarily operate between civil sunset and civil sunrise, just before all ambient light is out of the atmosphere. The isolated high desert of central New Mexico provides an excellent location for such operations.
The detachment was activated as Detachment 1, 1st Strategic Aerospace Division, Strategic Air Command in April 1981 and became operational on July 30, 1982. The detachment became part of the 1st Space Wing, Air Force Space Command on May 1, 1983. On Feb. 1, 1990, it was reassigned to the 18th Space Surveillance Squadron at Peterson Air Force Base upon activation of the squadron. Both the detachment and its parent squadron were reassigned to the wing from the 73rd Space Group on May 15, 1992, when the 21st Space Wing assumed responsibility for all space surveillance units. The unit was redesignated as the 18th Space Control Squadron in February 2003. As of April 2016, the GEODSS detachments became part of the 20th Space Control Squadron, dedicated to worldwide 24-hour space domain characterization. The site is operated and maintained by contract workers. The single Air Force officer is responsible for ensuring that the mission is accomplished and the contractor's work performance is satisfactory.
The detachment sits on the northwest corner of the White Sands Missile Range on Route 525, 30 miles southeast of the town of Socorro. The terrain is dry and sandy, and the area's desert climate is hot and dry in summer, cool and dry in winter.